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Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: Correlations between thrombocytopenia severity and its clinical symptoms

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ABSTRACT

Introduction. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an autoimmune hematological condition. The decrease of the number of platelets in the peripheral blood and the occurrence of anti-platelet antibodies are the pathognomonic elements of the disease. The clinical symptoms in immune thrombocytopenic purpura are heterogeneous and vary especially from the view- point of the intensity of the symptoms. Some cases are asymptomatic or show only slight cutaneous-mucous hemorrhages, yet in other cases the hemorrhagic syndrome may be severe and impair the mucosa, the tegument and also the viscera (retina, brain, kidneys).

The aim of the study was to point out the connection between the autoimmune thrombocytopenia severity and the intensity of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Material and methods. The research was performed on 40 patients divided into two groups: the first group included asymptomatic patients who came in for rou- tine blood tests, whereas the second group comprised patients with hemorrhagic symptoms: petechiae, bruises, epistaxis, gingivorrhagia.

Results. All the patients included in the study had thrombocytopenia, having mean platelet count values of 45.93 x 20.10 x103/μL, whereas most of the patients (80%) exhibited positive anti-platelet antibodies. This demonstrates the increased frequency of immune thrombocytopenic purpura contrary to the fact that till nowadays it was considered to be a rare disease. The mean value for patients with positive anti-platelet antibodies was 42,91 ± 24,10 x 103/μL, which is slightly lower than the average value of patients with negative anti-platelet antibodies (p 0.130). These results prove that the platelet functions in immune thrombocyto- penic purpura are influenced by anti-platelet antibodies.

In conclusion, the intensity of the clinical hemorrhagic symptoms in immune thrombocytopenic purpura is in correlation with the decreased number of platelets.

Keywords: immune thrombocytopenic purpura, hemorrhagic syndrome, thrombocytopenia, anti-platelet antibodies.

Abbreviations  list:

EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay PLT = platelet

EU = European Union

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Oana Badulescu, Magda Badescu, Manuela Ciocoiu, Florentina Dudu and Madalina Mocanu

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