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Obstructive sleep apneea – Pathophysiological mechanisms and its effects on the human body

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Snoring is a frequent health problem among the grown-up population with a high currency of 15%-28% in women and 35% to 45% in men. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) can be defined as a respiratory sleep disorder. It is characterized by the appearance of apnea, caused by partial or total obstruction of the superior respiratory tract all along sleeping.
The obstructive sleep apnea bears semblance of many symptoms associated with apnea. They are both correlated with grave clinical and morbidity effects with impairment in well-being of individuals and rising cost of management. A wide range of studies have been developed with the aim of adressing the problem.
This article reviews recent literature data on the prevalence of snoring, and associations between sleep disordered breathing, common causes of secondary hypertension, insulin resistance, dysplipidemia, cardiovascular disease and to identify the key variables associated with a significant reduction in the consequences of snoring.

Abbreviations:
OSA – obstructive sleep apnea;
OSAS – obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,
AHI – apnea-hypopnea index,
LNL – lateral neck length,
MNL – midline neck length,
SDB – sleep disordered breathing,
CPAP – nasal continuous positive airway pressure,
ESS – epworth sleepiness scale,
BMI – body mass index,
CV – cardiovascular

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