Introduction. Peri-implantitis is defined as an inflam- matory process initiated by Gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species that colonize the dental implant. Human beta-3 defensin is a small cationic peptide with important antibacterial effects. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible relationship between beta-3 defensin and Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli present in peri-implant liquid in patients with favorable evo- lution of the dental implant and in patients who have developed peri-implantitis.
Methods. The study group consisted of 36 patients, divided into three study groups after the clinical and radiological exam, as follows: 9 patients with favorable evolution of the implant; 12 patients with stage 0I and 15 patients with stage II peri-implantitis. We harvest- ed peri-implant crevicular fluid from which we quanti- fied beta-3 defensin and we performed microbiological tests.
Results. We obtained highly significant statistically differences regarding the hBD-3 values between mu- cositis and peri-implantitis patients (p<0.0001) and also between healthy and peri-implantitis patients (p=0.0001). The combination of bacterial species with the highest percentage representation was made up of Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp. and Tanerella forsythia. Our study shows that there is correlation be- tween the presence of these bacterial species and the peri-implant pocket depth (p=0.010).
Conclusion. Our study demonstrates the role of bac- teria in achieving the inflammatory process within mucositis and peri-implantitis. Beta-3 defensin can be used as biomarker in monitoring the patients with peri-implantitis.
Key words: peri-implantitis, beta-3 defensin, bacteria.
API = analytical profile index BOP = bleeding on probing hBD-3 = human beta-3 defensin PD = probing depth
PICF = peri-implant crevicular fluid