ISSN ONLINE: 2558-815X
ISSN PRINT: 1584-9244
ISSN-L: 1584-9244

Fetal variant anatomy of great saphenous vein



Introduction. The accumulated factual material about the topography of the great saphenous vein is extremely contradictory. Therefore, an individual approach is necessary to study the age-related anatomical variability of the large saphenous vein in human fetuses.

The objective of the study was to determine the peculiarities of the saphenous vein topography in human fetuses of 4-10 months.

Materials and methods. Studies of the variant anatomy of the great saphenous vein (GSV) were carried out on specimens of the lower limbs of 80 human fetuses of 81.0-375.0 mm parietal-coccygeal length using macro-microscopic dissection, vascular injection, surface staining of prepared vessels and nerves, radiography and morphometry.

Results. GSV is a continuation of the medial marginal vein, which is directed upwards in the subcutaneous tissue along the anterior edge of the inner ankle in the studied human fetuses. On the lower leg, the GSV runs along the medial edge of the tibia and receives superficial veins from the anterior medial surface of the lower leg. The GSV bends around the back of the medial epicondyle of the femur in the knee area, is located outside the sartorial muscle, and passes to the anteromedial surface of the thigh. The GSV returns inward through the perforated fascia. In the saphenous opening area, it bends around the lower corner of the falciform margin of the saphenous opening, and it flows into the femoral vein (FV) from the anteromedial side. The anterior accessory saphenous vein flows into the femoral part of the GSV in 45% of cases. The posterior accessory saphenous vein is formed from the saphenous veins of the medial and posterior surfaces of the thigh.

Conclusions. The anatomical variability of the great saphenous vein has been determined in human fetuses. The anterior accessory saphenous vein was detected in 71.3% of the studied fetuses, while the posterior accessory saphenous vein was found in 38.1% of cases. The great saphenous vein is characterized by the predominance of the transitional vein type (55.6% of cases) over the main (33.8% of cases) and loose (10.6%o cases) ones. The main type prevails over the loose type in the ratio of 3.2:1. The coincidence of the type of formation of a great saphenous vein on the right and left lower extremities was observed in 61.3% of fetuses. Significant gender differences in the typology of the great saphenous vein in human fetuses were not found.

Keywords: great saphenous vein, anatomical variability, topography, fetus, human.

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Address for correspondence:
Tatiana V. KHMARA
Higher State Educational Institution „Bukovinian State Medical University“, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
E-mail:; Phone: +38 099 751 65 50


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Khmara TV, Hryhorieva PV, Ryznychuk MA, Drachuk VM,  Stelmakh GY. Fetal variant anatomy of great saphenous vein. Arch Balk Med Union. 2020;55(2):206-214.