Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently linked to various risk factors and comorbidities and closely connected to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) like coronary artery disease (CHD), heart failure (HF) and valvular heart disease. The concomitant presence of AF with one or more of these CVDs increases the risk of stroke and requires a different clinical management.
The objective of the study was to analyse the differences between risk factors and comorbidities, depending on the presence/absence of three cardiac comorbidities (HF, coronary heart disease, valvopathies).
Materials and methods. 4216 patients with primary or secondary diagnosis of AF on discharge were selected from the database of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital Oradea, Romania, and included in a retrospective study. Specific data on demographic information and comorbidities were gathered and organized in a digital form. Patients were divided into three groups: low risk group (LRG) – 1404 participants who did not have any of the three cardiac conditions; the medium risk group (MRG) – 2760 participants who had at least one and most two cardiac conditions, and the high-risk group (HRG) –52 participants who had all three cardiac conditions.
Results. A higher incidence of hypertension (HT), smoking, alcohol consumption, and peripheral arterial disease can be seen in the LRG compared to MRG and HRG. In the MRG, in contrast to LRG and HRG, there was a higher incidence of HT, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol consumption and peripheral arterial disease; increased incidence of diabetes, family history of AF, family history of CHD, and dyslipidemia were noted in HRG as compared to LRG and MRG.
Conclusions. The present research reveals a strong association between AF alone or concomitant with one or two of HF, CAD and valvulophaties and several risk factors like HT, adverse lifestyle and diabetes.
Keywords: atrial fibrillation, risk factors, comorbidities, cardiovascular diseases
Address for correspondence:
Delia M. TIT
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Romania
Address: N. Jiga Str. no. 29, 410028, Oradea, Romania