ISSN ONLINE: 2558-815X
ISSN PRINT: 1584-9244
ISSN-L: 1584-9244

Giardiasis in children: molecular genotyping, growth and calprotectin levels



Introduction. Giardiasis is the most frequently reported human intestinal parasitic infection.

The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency of giardiasis, carry out the genotyping, estimate the growth and determine the level of fecal calprotectin in children.

Material and methods. 688 children aged 6-18 years were examined for Giardia duodenalis by direct microscopy. Two groups were formed: group I – children with a positive test for Giardia duodenalis (n = 90); group II – children with a negative test (n = 110). Genetic examination, anthropometry and fecal calprotectin (FC)  evaluation were carried out in these children.

Results. Out of the 688 children examined, 90 had a positive result (G. duodenalis (+)). The leading clinical feature of G. duodenalis infection (+) was abdominal pain, followed by nausea and diarrhea. The FC content in the feces of the group I was significantly higher (p <0.05) compared to children of group II, and did not depend on sex. The analysis of the sequences characterizing the amplification of Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) revealed the presence of subgroups AII (54%, 13/24), BIII (8.3%, 2/24) and BIV (37.5%, 9/24). Annual body weight gain in children of group I is shifted by 1 year and 1 cm compared to the ones from group II.

Conclusions. The socio-demographic factors can be considered as predictors of the development of giardiasis in children. In the clinical course of giardiasis, the digestive tract’s disease dominates. Direct and indirect methods of diagnosis are necessary to improve the diagnosis accuracy in children. Children with increased FC need further examination. Our study suggests that G. duodenalis infection is accompanied by the growth retardation and intestinal inflammation in children.

Keywords: Giardiasis, genetic testing, growth, calprotectin, children.

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Correspondence address:
Department of Pediatrics and Medical Genetics, Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
Address: Prospekt Nezalezhnosti, 98, 58000, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
E-mail:; Phone +380506642667


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Sorokman TV, Sokolnyk SV, Popelyuk AMV, Bezruk TO, Bezruk VV, Popelyuk NO. Giardiasis in children: molecular genotyping, growth and calprotectin levels. Arch Balk Med Union. 2019;54(3):522-531