Rhabdomyolysis (RML) is a potential life-threatening condition with diverse etiology. Infections, and less frequently metabolic diseases, are most often responsible in young children. The classical clinical triad includes myalgia, muscle weakness, and dark urine, combined with a rapid increase in creatine kinase concentration. Timely administered, aggressive hydration is important to preserve renal function and prevent acute kidney injury (AKI). We reported the cases of two children with muscle damage caused by parainfluenza viruses 2 and 3. One of the patients had benign myositis and the other pneumonia and RML, complicated by AKI. The presence of one obvious cause of RML such as respiratory infection did not preclude us to search for another, especially in the absence of a clear diagnosis. Nevertheless, in our case, it was parainfluenza virus 3 that caused RML, complicated with AKI. The final and accurate microbiological diagnosis, based on multiplex PCR, is needed for a better management of the patients.
Keywords: rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, parainfluenza viruses, children, multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
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