The use of alloplastic materials in different surgical urogynecological interventions has been subject to limitations during the past years by the international societies, because of late onset mesh-related complications. Xenograft-based biomaterials obtained from extracellular matrix offer a proper acellular foundation for tissue repair in urogynecology, with improved tissue-graft rejection. We have searched PubMed database to identify all publications regarding the use of extracellular matrix in gynecological reconstructive surgery. The use of these matrices in organ prolapse surgery has shown efficient integration and favorable outcomes. Biomaterials are used for vaginoplasties in patients with vaginal congenital agenesis, patients who underwent vaginal radical resection for cervical cancer or patients diagnosed with profound endometriosis, who had partial vaginal resection. Biomaterials may also have a future in vaginoplasties performed for aesthetic reasons. It is foreseen that in the future these biomaterials might be used in the treatment of certain fetal structural anomalies, like neural tube defects. Although nowadays the use of biological grafts is quite limited, due to the lack of prospective randomized trials to compare them with classical surgical techniques, with the emerging technologies, in the near future we foresee its significant role in urogynecology, plastic surgery repair and possibly fetal congenital malformation correction.
Keywords: extracellular matrices, urogynecology, vaginoplasty, biological graft.
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