ISSN ONLINE: 2558-815X
ISSN PRINT: 1584-9244
ISSN-L: 1584-9244

Extragonadal germ-cell tumors – a review of the pathogenesis, histopathological findings, diagnosis and treatment

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ABSTRACT

Primary extragonadal germ-cell tumors (EGCTs) are a rare group of neoplasms, that can exist anywere along the midline of the body, without the evidence of a primary gonadal tumor. Their morphology varies widely and includes teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and mixed GCTs. The ethiopathogenesis of EGCT is poorly understood, existing multiple theories. Diagnosis is often difficult, but an accurate one should be made in order to apply a correct management.

Keywords: extragonadal germ-cell tumors, pathogenesis, histhopathology, diagnosis, treatment.

Abbreviations

GCT – germ cell tumor

EGCT – extragonadal germ cell tumor

ST – seminomatous

NST – non seminomatous tumors

EC – embryonic carcinoma

YST – yolk sack tumor

FNAC – fine needle aspiration cytology

AFP  – alfa-feto protein

beta-hCG – beta-human chorionic gonadotropin

LDH – lactate dehydrogenase

VIP – etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy

BEP – bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy

RT – radiation therapy

PET – positron emission tomography

Full text sources https://doi.org/10.31688/ABMU.2019.54.4.16 How to cite Email to Author Format XML


Corresponding author:
Ovidiu G. BRATU
University Emergency Central Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
Address: Calea Plevnei 134, Bucharest, Romania
Email: ovi78doc@yahoo.com

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Iorga L, Marcu D, Bratu O, Socea B, Neagu TP, Bungau S, Stanescu AMA, Diaconu C, Mischianu D. Extragonadal germ-cell tumors – a review of the pathogenesis, histopathological findings, diagnosis and treatment. Arch Balk Med Union. 2019;53(4):725-730.