ISSN ONLINE: 2558-815X
ISSN PRINT: 1584-9244
ISSN-L: 1584-9244

Inflammation in schizophrenia

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ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the world population. Inflammation is a complex response of a living body to pathological agent. This normal response plays the role to eliminate the pathogens by starting the immune response. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are divided into predominantly pro-inflammatory and predominantly anti-inflammatory types. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), are secreted by monocytes and macrophages and activate other cellular components of the inflammatory response. Anti-inflammatory cytokines with properties, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), help to down-regulate the inflammatory immune response.
Key words: schizophrenia, inflammation, cytokines, treatment, antipsychotics.

INTRODUCTION
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of
the world population. Inflammation is a complex response of a living body to pathological agent1. This
normal response plays the role to eliminate the pathogens by starting the immune response. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are divided into predominantly pro-inflammatory and predominantly anti-inflammatory types2. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), are secreted by monocytes and macrophages and activate other cellular components of the inflammatory response. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), help to down-regulate the inflammatory immune response. Schizophrenia-like symptoms have been described in the encephalitic form of MS (multiple sclerosis) 3, in viral CNS infection with herpes simplex virus type 14, HSV-25, and measles6. In the same time, psychotic symptoms were found also in autoimmune processes such as lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma7.

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