ISSN ONLINE: 2558-815X
ISSN PRINT: 1584-9244
ISSN-L: 1584-9244

Variant anatomy of the tibial nerve in posterior calf muscles in human fetuses


Introduction. The knowledge of general patterns of intramuscular distribution of nerves in each muscle of the thigh and lower leg during different periods of human ontogenesis is necessary for doctors of different specialties.
The objective of the study was to establish the features of the intramuscular distribution of nerves in the muscles of the calf in human fetuses aged 4-8 months.
Materials and methods. A macroscopic study of the calf muscles innervation was carried out on 38 human fetuses aged 4-8 months using anatomical dissection methods, vascular injection and morphometry.
Results. It has been established that the nerve branches go mainly at an acute angle from the tibial nerve to the calf muscles and enter into their thickness within the upper third of the calf. The direction of intramuscular nerves, as well as the type of their branching in the same muscle can be different, which is associated with the structural and functional organization of the calf muscles. In five human fetuses there was atypical topography of the sciatic nerve and its branches, as well as various types of branching of the tibial nerve in the thickness of the superficial and deep muscles of the calf.
Conclusions. The greatest concentration of the nerve branches has been noted in the penetration area and in the central parts of the calf muscles. High branching and penetration of the nerves into the muscles of the calf provides favorable conditions for the transposition of these muscles for plastic purposes.
Keywords: calf muscles, topography, tibial nerve, innervation, fetus.

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Address for correspondence:
Tatiana V. KHMARA
Human Anatomy Department, Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
Address: 1a, Aksenina St. apt. 16, Chernivtsi 58001, Ukraine
E-mail:; Phone: +38 099 751 65 50


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Komar TV, Khmara TV, Protsak TV, Zamorskii II, Sarafyniuk PV. Variant anatomy of the tibial nerve in posterior calf muscles in human fetuses. Arch Balk Med Union. 2022;57(4):363-371.